Which prefix means under less or less

Commit, escape, endure, pass away, melt - Prefix verbs and their meaning

A verb that is like turning on the light in a dark room. Suddenly a scene is there.
Heringer 1983: 49

Commit, escape, endure, pass away, melt.... What light do we throw on a scene with these verbs and how do we achieve the illuminating effect?

"The term verb comes from Latin verb 'Word', which in turn was used as a translation of the Greek word for 'statement' - an indication that the verb was seen as indispensable for a statement "Fabricius-Hansen 2005: 395. Verbs are therefore important when we say something We usually use verbs to say something about activities: She plays Susaphone. We mainly use simply structured verbs such asplay, but also verbs with complex structures such ascommit. For example, to form complex verbs, we combine words such as walk with prefixes like loading. The underlying word forms the basis; the prefix is ​​added in front - Latin more preferred 'pin to the front' - and derive the base. We also combine words like walk with words likeat or to (approach, pursue) - but we'd better investigate it there.

The central prefixes for deriving German verbs are loading, un-, he-, ver anddisintegrate; they can all be combined with a noun, adjective, or verb.

with noun basewith adjective basewith verb base
loadinglimitto freeilluminate
un-corediscourageelicit
he-stabexhilaratebuild
vergildsweetenchase away
disintegrateshattercrushbreak

These central prefixes are all native prefixes and we use them many times, but only to form verbs. We use prefixes that are not indigenous but rather from other languages ​​to a lesser extent: We have borrowed prefixes from classical languages ​​in particular, such as reinreactivate, reconstruct or with the variants of- and dis- inunmask, disillusion, disqualify. We also use less prefixes that are used to form nouns and adjectives in addition to the formation of verbs, such as miss- inmisinterpret, Displeasure andin a bad mood.

Now let's take a closer look at the verbs with the central prefixes: What can we say with them? Which scenes do we light up? And how exactly do we do it?

Prefix verbs with noun base (limit, core, dagger, gild, shatter)

With nouns we make statements about things or facts; therefore, with noun-based verbs, we illuminate activities that have something to do with things or facts. What exactly the activities have to do with the things and facts is partly controlled by the prefixes; but mostly it tells us our world knowledge:

  • For example, we know from the border that we can draw it with all sorts of restrictive or protective consequences: we limit the freedom of the other and we limit the damage. We know about gold that it adorns extremely: We gild the iron grating and our gray everyday life. Verbs with something added, a border or gold, are called ornativa in Latin ornare 'add, decorate'. So tooto sit down, label, flag, wreath, soled, arm, glazed, barred, squiggle.
  • We know that seeds are a nuisance: we core cherries before we boil them down, and we core out old-fashioned inner cities. Verbs in which something is taken away, something is removed are called privativa too Latinprivare 'deprive'. The typical prefix of the privativa is un-. So too boning, debone, dishonor, disempower, devalue.
  • We know from daggers that we can kill with them: As we learned by heart in school, Damon intends to stab the tyrant: Damon, the dagger in his robe, crept to Dionys, the tyrant. "You should regret that on the cross." Verbs that deal with the use of instruments in the broadest sense are called instrumentativa. So too anchor, moor, split up.
  • We know about broken pieces that they can be the result of our carelessness or our bright anger: we break the jug and sometimes willfully our happiness. Verbs that deal with results in the broadest sense are called resultatives. So too to slip away, bog, snobby, obstruct, smash.
  • We know people behave in a certain way: we treat someone's wound in a way a doctor couldn't do better. So tooto entertain, mother, patronize. Verbs that address an agent, an agent, a grammatical agent, are called agentiva in Latin agens 'agent'.

Prefix verbs with adjective base (liberate, discourage, exhilarate, sweeten, crush)

We use adjectives to make statements about properties; therefore, with adjective-based verbs, we illuminate activities that have anything to do with properties.

  • Most adjective-based verbs can be read ornatively; a quality is added, for example being free, cheerful, cute or smaller. So too alienate, discard, to cool off, renew, sober, blush, impoverish, improve, obscure. A further fine distinction can be made here in causative verbs to Latin causare 'cause' and ingressive verbs too Latin ingredients 'to enter': when someone sets someone free, the free is created; when someone blushes, the blush has occurred.
  • The prefix un- Here, too, controls a privative reading; one quality is withdrawn, for example being brave. So too softening. However, we already saw at the previous point that on un- is not really reliable: alienate is clearly to be read ornatively and the distant aspect is more based on becoming alien to one another. Here, too, a fine distinction can be made between causative and ingressive verbs. See Barz (2005).

Prefix verbs with verb base (illuminate, elicit, edify, chase away, break)

We use verbs to make statements about activities. With the prefixing of verbs, we can make a nuanced statement about an activity.

  • Many verb-based prefix verbs focus other players in the scene: For example, we illuminate with the verbto brush in the sentence Hans-Peter spreads Oda's sensational sour cherry jam on his bun the sour cherry jam different than with coat in Hans-Peter spreads Oda's sensational sour cherry jam on his roll. in the coat-Satz we could even put the really sensational jam completely in the dark and leave Hans-Peter alone with his bun.
  • Often we also use the prefixation to make an intransitive verb like consequences to a transitive like follow: The objects of intransitive verbs are not in the accusative, but in a different case, for example in the dative (i follow your advice); through the prefixation we put the object in the accusative; transitive verbs are created: i'm taking your advice. Transitivated verbs with the prefix loading Incidentally, have not only been researched and described in great detail, but have also been the target of bitter language criticism from time to time. Speaker writers were accused of using verbs likefollow to create an "inhuman accusative". More on this in Eisenberg 1993 and Donalies 2003: 29.
  • Statements about positions are already created in the prefixes. The central prefixes of the verbs mostly go to the prefixpositions back: So comeloading from the Old High German preposition bi 'around ... around, at, on';un- comes from old high Germanant, int 'against'; he- comes from old high German ur 'out of ... out';ver from the Gothic prepositionsfaur 'before, over', fra 'away' andfair 'out, through'. Ultimately, it is not entirely cleardisintegrate; the connection with Gothic is plausible twis- in words like twisstass 'Conflict'. Prepositions are mostly temporal, which is why we also make temporal statements with many prefixes: For example, it is about time, namely the beginning and the end bloom andwither. Here, too, ingressives and egressives can still be used in Latin egredire distinguish between 'going out'. It's about spatial illuminate and escape: If we illuminate a scene, we illuminate a scene; let's escape, let's move away. Such verbs are also called locativa too Latin locus 'Place, place' (hence the quiet place :-).
  • At ver became - especially in connection with the reflexive pronounyourself - a special negation reading was developed; it says that something goes wrong, that something does not happen as expected: We make promises when we tell stories and miscount when we calculate. Such verbs are also called falsificatives, because they are about something that went wrong, something that was executed incorrectly.
We see: With prefix verbs we can illuminate the most varied of scenes. Speaker writers and listener readers can tend to orientate themselves on the prefixes: For example, lays loading because of its originat Ornative and temporal patterns are close - albeit in a somewhat sought-after way: those who seat a hall are somehow someone who “provides” chairs, but closes them illuminate and to free Do we need toAt- Get an explanation far. And then you can by no means rely on such a thing. So is for example un- Subscribed to Privativa: If water is softened, it is Not more hard. Occasionally, however, we can also express the ornative opposite: if we alienate one another, we make one another alien. Only the interaction of prefix and base and, above all, the use of the prefix verb tells us enough about its meaning. Because the meaning of a verb is its use in language.

Special literature

Olsen 1996, Eichinger 2000, Pavlov 2002, Dudek 2003, Takahashi 2003