What are photons leptons mesons baryons

Particle physics


In the Gravity it is the weakest, but the most powerful Elemental power in our universe. It causes objects to fall to the ground, the planets move on their orbits around the sun and galaxies attract each other. Gravitation is only detectable in connection with large masses such as our earth. The basics for calculating the forces of attraction between masses were made by Isaac Newton without these formulas neither space flights nor modern astronomy would be conceivable.
But what causes gravity? According to quantum theory, this is a hypothetical particle that Graviton conceivable that propagates at the speed of light; however, this particle has not yet been proven experimentally.
Another hypothetical particle is that Higgs bosonby the British physicist Peter Higgs It was proposed in 1964. The Higgs particle has no electrical charge and the spin 0 and would therefore be a boson, comparable to a photon (light particle).

Strong interaction

This interaction is responsible for the cohesion of the quarks, Protons With Neutrons and the orbits of the Electrons crucial to the atomic nucleus. It is therefore also called Nuclear power and only works at a distance of 2.5x10-15 m. for the transfer of the Strong interaction are so-called Gluons (Exchange particles) responsible.
The interaction of the quarks differs fundamentally from the Quarks composite elementary particles. While the effect decreases with distance in the case of elementary particles, it increases in the case of the Quarks, whereby it is not possible that individual Quarks to exist freely.

Electromagnetic interaction

This interaction includes all everyday phenomena related to electricity. Connections between electricity and magnetism were recognized around 2500 years ago. Our high-tech world in the areas of transmission and reception technology would not be possible without the knowledge and calculation bases. This force is transmitted by the photon.

Weak interaction

This is also one of the four basic forces in physics. This force is a factor of 109 weaker than the strong interaction and transforms Neutrons in Protons and a electron in a Electron antineutrino around. It works between everyone Quarks and Leptons and transmits both energy and the momentum for conversion to the relevant particles.



In today's physics it will be Photons also commonly known as Quanta designated. Quanta arise exclusively in electromagnetic processes of any kind (e.g. nuclear conversion of hydrogen to helium in the sun) and cover the entire range of electromagnetic spectrum, of Gamma radiation to Radio waves, from (see electromagnetic spectrum). Quanta have no rest mass but energy. Since they have spin -1, they also count among the bosons and interact with gravity, that is, Quanta are gravitationally attracted (see gravitational lens).
Quanta also have a very unusual property that can also be called Wave-particle dualism designated. This property was first demonstrated in an experiment by Double slit test demonstrated that Quanta under certain conditions in the experiment both Particle as well as Wave properties have (see
Quantum mechanics).
The speed at which Quanta Moving forward is above all the upper limit for all speeds in the universe. This is currently with exactly 299,792 km / second in the vacuum Are defined.

Mathematical definition see here!


belong to this group Protons and Neutronswho together the Atomic nucleus form. With the exception of stable and unstable isotopes and the hydrogen atom, there is always the same number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.


To the "stable" Hadrons generally count nucleons, all other types of hadronic matter decay very quickly into leptons or gamma rays. They are subject to the strong interaction and are divided into mesons and baryons depending on their quark composition. It follows that Hadrons can belong to the class of fermions as well as bosons.


Quarks are the elementary components of matter, have spin 1/2 and are therefore part of the fermions. Quarks to step never individually, but always in groups of three, either in groups of three Quarks (Barions), three Antiquarks (Anti barions) or Quark-Antiquark pairs (Mesons).


These elementary particles represent a certain class of fermions that are subject to the weak interaction and, unlike the hadrons, do not exchange gluons because they are not made up of quarks. According to the current state of science, they form the basic building blocks of matter together with the quarks and, because they have an electrical charge, interact very weakly with gravity.


This group includes everyone Electrons and Neutrinos with half-integer spin, generally leptons, but also quarks and thus particles like Protons and Neutronsthat are made up of an odd number of Quarks are constructed.


This group includes elementary particles with integer spin such as: gluons, W and Z bosons, photons and gravitons, and most of them Atoms and Molecules.


A meson is made up of one Quark and one Antiquark built up and is therefore subject to the strong interaction. Because of their composition, one can Mesons not as Elementary particles describe.