Why is ASP called a scripting language
ASP.NET is a Framework for the development of professional and complex websites and web applications. The ASP.NET framework is part of the .NET framework from Microsoft. ASP.NET is used as server-side technology on around 16% of websites on the Internet and is therefore in second place, but still far behind PHP, which is known to be used by around 81%.
ASP.NET, unlike PHP, is not a programming language, but just a framework, i.e. H. a set of namespaces, classes, and interfaces. The terms ASP.NET technologies or ASP.NET techniques are also often used. To build an ASP.NET application, you need a .NET programming language (usually C # or Visual Basic). For this tutorial you should already have a good knowledge of one of the languages. For a quick introduction to C #, we can recommend our crash course. A detailed tutorial on the C # programming language can be found on our partner website. The examples in this chapter are all written in C #, but most of them can be ported to Visual Basic.
ASP.NET supports different technologies or techniques (more rarely also referred to as procedures), all of which are based on the HTTP handler of the ASP.NET framework. Through the different technologies it is possible to program web applications in different ways. The choice of technology depends on, among other things. on the scope and structure of the project as well as on the taste of the programmer (s). We will explain the different technologies in more detail below.
A large advantage of ASP.NET in contrast to other server-side technologies (such as PHP) is that an enormous set of classes and functions from the framework are already available. So if you are familiar with .NET, you will be more interested in getting to know ASP.NET than in learning a completely new programming language. As disadvantage ASP.NET is primarily (only in relation to the .NET Framework) the fact that it is tied to the Windows operating system and thus the higher hosting fees.
ASP.NET began to emerge in 1996 with the release of the ASP technology. ASP applications (also known as classic ASP or Classic ASP) could then be created with a scripting language such as VBScript and JScript.
In 2002 ASP was replaced by the publication of the .NET Framework with ASP.NET. ASP has not been further developed by Microsoft since then. The versions of ASP.NET correspond to the versions of the .NET Framework, even if the release of the ASP.NET versions was temporarily delayed in relation to the release of the .NET Framework version.
The ASP.NET Core Framework. This is part of the .NET Core Framework. The .NET Core Framework is also developed by Microsoft and exists parallel to the .NET Framework. It is being developed to make .NET available for other platforms as well. As you probably know, the classic .NET framework is limited to Windows operating systems.
Development and web server
The development environment for ASP.NET usually comes Visual studio for use. From Visual Studio 2013 there is a community version. This is no longer restricted in terms of functionality and can be used free of charge for private users as well as for smaller companies. As an alternative to the IDE Visual Studio there is a. The SharpDevelop IDE is also available here, but the use of Visual Studio is preferable.
Traditionally, ASP.NET applications are based on the Web server IIS (Internet Information Services) run by Microsoft. The IIS can be installed on Windows operating systems. Visual Studio also includes an Express version of IIS. Execution on Apache web servers is not possible directly, but only indirectly (e.g. via the module or). There is also the Cassini web server, which was published by Microsoft as a sample web server. However, the productive use of Cassini should be avoided.
Functionality and technologies
There are different technologies in ASP.NET, all of which rely on the HTTP runtime environment (also known as HTTP handler). ASP.NET applications can only be run and hosted by web servers that support ASP.NET. The most popular technologies are ASP.NET WebForms, ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET Web API and ASP.NET Web Pages.
ASP.NET WebForms is the basic building block of ASP.NET and is partly similar to the classic ASP. With ASP.NET, as with PHP, several pages or files (extension) can be created. In addition, an ASP.NET WebForms project can of course also contain other C # classes.
Another technology is ASP.NET MVC, in which there is a strict separation between the data model model), View view) and control controller) consists. This technology cannot be compared directly with ASP.NET WebForms. In contrast to ASP.NET WebForms, ASP.NET MVC is also part of the new .NET Core Framework.
We offer you a tutorial here for both ASP.NET WebForms and ASP.NET MVC. If you are completely new to ASP.NET development, we strongly recommend that you read the ASP.NET WebForms tutorial first.
The technologies ASP.NET Web API and ASP.NET Web Pages are used less often, which is why we will not cover them here.
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