Why is it too hot
What happens in the body when it is too cold? Effect: With hypothermia below 36 degrees Celsius core temperature, biochemical reactions become slower. For example, the so-called sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membranes, which normally ensure an optimal ratio of the electrolytes sodium and potassium on both sides of the membrane, work increasingly poorly.
Only then can nerve cells transmit stimuli in a controlled manner, for example for heart rhythm and cognitive performance. Consequence: There is uncontrolled excitation of the nerve cells, permanent excitation or no excitation. The result is impaired consciousness and confusion.
If the core temperature is below 32 degrees Celsius, the person concerned can hardly be addressed, and occasional cardiac arrhythmias can occur. From 30 degrees Celsius downwards, the person affected is unconscious and the pulse is barely noticeable. Below a core temperature of 28 degrees Celsius, the person appears to be dead.
What happens in the body when it gets too hot? Effect: In the event of overheating (hyperthermia), which begins at a core temperature of over 37.5 degrees Celsius, the outer blood vessels expand.
As a result, they are supplied with more blood, which conducts heat to the outside, and the sweat glands are activated. The blood supply to the stomach, intestines and head is correspondingly weaker, and many electrolytes such as magnesium and potassium are flushed out of the body in the secreted sweat. The loss of water causes the blood to thicken.
Consequence: There is a risk of cramps because magnesium and potassium are lost, which are responsible for muscle relaxation in the transmission of stimuli.
If the core temperature continues to rise, the insufficient blood supply to the brain leads to dizziness, tiredness and pain, and that of the stomach and intestines to both of them absorbing less fluid, which changes the bacterial environment and causes nausea.
The thickened blood supplies the tissues worse and worse, organs stop working.
What happens in the body when the water runs out? Effect: Even a loss of water in the order of one percent of body weight has measurable effects.
The smaller the main component of the body, which as a transport and solvent ensures the optimal concentration equilibrium of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium, the thicker the blood becomes, which increases the pumping work of the heart, and the worse signals and stimuli are transmitted and processed.
Consequence: From a water loss of five to eight percent of the body weight, people suffer from fatigue and dizziness. A loss of more than ten percent results in physical and mental disorientation, hallucinations with impaired hearing and vision, and possibly also epileptic seizures because nerve signals for the muscles are no longer transmitted in a coordinated manner.
With 15 to 25 percent water loss, death occurs.
What happens when the air gets thin? Effect: Receptors in the carotid gland of the carotid artery report the falling level of oxygen in the blood that supplies the brain. The respiratory center in the hypothalamus then stimulates breathing, heart rate and blood pressure increase.
If the body gets used to the O2 deficiency, it releases erythropoietin, which stimulates the formation of oxygen-carrying red blood cells: up to 60 percent of the blood volume, which makes the blood more viscous.
Consequence: The organs are supplied with less energy, which requires oxygen to extract. It comes to malfunction. In the brain, they manifest themselves as drowsiness and dizziness.
Walking is difficult because the muscles are undersupplied. The increased blood flow causes headaches, accompanied by nausea, possibly because receptors in the brain become very irritated. The pressure of the thick blood threatens to store water in the lungs and brain.
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