How do molecules connect

Attachment models

In order for atoms to be able to form solid and liquid substances, they have to form bonds with one another. Atoms that are bound together form molecules and crystals. This page is intended to give an overview of some binding models.

The electrons that lie in deep shells generally play no role in the bonding of atoms. One can therefore often understand bonds between atoms just by looking at the outermost electron shells. These bowls are called Valence shells. I would therefore like to first explain the principle underlying chemical bonds under the term valence bonds.

Two forms of valence bonds deserve special chapters. The covalent bond occurs when electrons are shared by a few, mostly neighboring atoms and are divided into Molecular orbitals are located. In an ionic bond, the atoms tend to give up their electrons before they bond, or to take on additional electrons. This model is well suited for describing Salt.

The atoms of the metals form a special bond. The high electrical conductivity of the metals shows that there must be freely moving charges in them. This is characteristic of the metallic bond.

A very weak form of bond is the van der Waals bond. It explains the appearance of noble gas crystals and plays a decisive role in the binding of oils and fats.

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Last change: 07/01/2002