What do pigs stand for in HACCP
HACCP concept - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
HACCP, this is the systematic approach we use to ensure safe food. The task of the HACCP concept is to consider dangers associated with the processing of food or from finished products and to assess the risks. Once all of the factors that can affect food purity have been identified, appropriate measures can be taken to eliminate these risk factors.
Who needs a HACCP / self-monitoring system?
- Restaurants / Hotels
- Community meals / catering
- Food service provider
- Ice cream parlors
- retail trade
- Plant inspection with report generation
- Creation of a HACCP / self-control system using the legal requirements
- Verification of the system
- Documentation and check lists
Why do we use the HACCP system?
"ELIMINATION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS THAT CAUSE FOOD POISONING“
How is the HACCP concept used? (1)
How is the HACCP concept used? (2)
How is the HACCP concept used? (3)
How is the HACCP concept used? (4)
How is the HACCP concept used? (5)
How is the HACCP concept used? (6)
How is the HACCP concept used? (7)
- Yeasts and molds
HACCP - Here you can find detailed information:
The HACCP concept
H AZARD = hazard, danger to health
A NALYSIS = analysis, investigation of the hazard
C RITICAL = critical, decisive for control
C ONTROL = control, monitoring of conditions
P OINTS = points in the process
HACCP - legal aspects
All companies that handle food have a special duty of care. This guarantee position obliges them to do everything possible to ensure that the food they dispense is safe and correctly labeled.
Up until the 1990s, end product control by means of random samples was the contemporary means of ensuring food safety. Official food control was also geared more towards the end product.
If a food sample was rejected, however, weeks after the sample was taken it was usually difficult to find the fault in the process. The end product control offers only a low level of security because, unlike other substances, food is rarely homogeneous. Not every fish or apple is like the other.
The establishment of quality assurance systems was therefore started early on in the food industry. If a fault is discovered during production, this is more economical and prevents the consumer from having reason for a complaint. Quality assurance systems later became quality management systems.
Quality was no longer "checked", but planned. The aim was to always achieve the same product quality according to previously defined requirements. Food safety was the most important criterion. HACCP was therefore often integrated into the company's quality management systems.
In contrast to the food industry, the HACCP concept has not yet been implemented in small and medium-sized companies to the extent that it would be desirable for food safety. The risk of falling ill with an industrially produced food is considerably lower than, for example, B. through a menu in the restaurant.
After all, 3/4 of all food samples complained about come from restaurants and snack bars. It is therefore astonishing that many catering establishments still do not have a functioning HACCP system.
The reason given is often that the HACCP concept for small businesses involves a disproportionately large amount of documentation. In the following I want to show you that this is a prejudice. The documentation can be provided and a functioning HACCP concept installed in a very short time.
HACCP has been mandatory since 1.1.2006!
Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 on food hygiene has been in force since January 1, 2006.
All companies that deal with food are obliged to introduce a complete HACCP system. It is true that the German Food Hygiene Regulation (LMHV) stipulated a self-monitoring system based on HACCP criteria. The documentation of the in-house measures and controls was not expressly required.
Since 2006, all food companies must be able to submit their HACCP documentation to the official food control system. The EC hygiene regulation replaced the German food hygiene regulation. In the following, reference is made to the regulations in force since 2006.
HACCP - what is it?
When preparations for manned spaceflight began in the USA, a system was sought for the catering of the crew that would certainly guarantee the health of the space travelers during their operation. Food poisoning during the flight would have had catastrophic consequences. Therefore, NASA worked with the Pillsbury Company (the food supplier) to develop a zero-defect system for food safety, the HACCP system.
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. Translated for example: hazard analysis and definition of control points.
Hazard analysis is about considering hazards to the health of consumers and the likelihood of their occurrence. Risks can already be avoided when choosing food. In contrast to many plant-based foods, raw animal-based foods pose a much greater risk potential
It is clear that the likelihood of developing salmonella after eating raw pork meat is much greater than after consuming pasta. But not only the food plays a role in the assessment of risks. Certain consumer groups such as children, the elderly and the sick are much more likely to be victims of food poisoning.
Exaggerated fear of food poisoning would mean that only processed foods are offered instead of fresh ones. Then practically only convenience products would be sold. But it makes a difference whether a dessert with raw egg is offered in a nursing home or served to a healthy adult in a controlled process in a restaurant.
After looking at food for dangers, it is now a matter of ensuring a controlled process. The easiest to manage is a process in which the food is consumed immediately after it has been produced. The microorganisms then simply do not have the time to multiply and then trigger food poisoning in large numbers.
A relatively low-risk process is therefore making french fries in a takeaway. If the French fries are processed in perfect fat according to the customer's order and consumed immediately afterwards by the consumer, the risk of food poisoning is practically zero.
The opposite is the case with the offer of food on buffets. Here germs present in the food can grow during the hours on offer due to insufficient cooling or food can be contaminated by customers. Such a process requires good planning.
Negative example 1:
An employee wears a ring while preparing cold cuts.
Thorough hand cleaning is not possible. Pathogenic germs can be transferred to food.
- Take off jewelry (and watch too) before starting work
- Staff training for employees
Negative example 2:
A bistro in a gas station sells a sandwich with a cigarette butt.
This pollution causes disgust when consumed by the consumer.
- Smoking ban during production (break rooms in reasonable proximity)
- Personnel training and control by the food business operator
HACCP - personal hygiene measures:
People who work in an area where food is handled must maintain a high level of personal cleanliness; they must wear suitable and clean work clothing and, if necessary, protective clothing. People who suffer from a food-borne illness or are carriers of such a disease, as well as people with, for example, infected wounds, skin infections or diarrheal diseases, the handling of food and entering areas in which food is handled, generally prohibited if there is a possibility of direct or indirect contamination / pollution.
Affected persons who are employed in a food business and who may come into contact with food must immediately report illnesses and symptoms and, if possible, their causes to the food business operator.
Levels of the HACCP concept
After basic hygiene has been ensured with a functioning hygiene management system, the company's own internal control system can be set up.
HACCP - identify hazards:
Identify hazards that need to be avoided, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.
The aim here is to identify hazards (physical, chemical, biological). These can be dangers emanating from food that has already been contaminated or threatened by an unsafe process.
HACCP - which dangers have to be averted?
- Chemical hazards such as B.Residues from pesticides or cleaning agents
- Physical hazards from e.g. B. glass, stones or metal
Biological hazards such as B. Parasites or pathogenic germs. Raw animal
Food often has a high initial germ content (e.g. minced meat).
Or the manufacturing process is unsafe because the time from delivery of the food to delivery is too long. Re-freezing food that has already thawed or keeping food warm for a long time are examples.
When considering the products to be processed, a distinction must be made between “non-critical” foods and “critical” foods. “Critical foods” are those that spoil quickly or that have a high germ content without sufficient heating (delicatessen salads, roast beef, minced meat, ground meat or meatballs that are not well-done). “Non-critical foods” are those that are relatively safe even without cooling or heating (potatoes, vegetables, bread). These foods can be neglected in further consideration.
After all possible dangers have been identified, it is a matter of assessing the likelihood of their occurrence, the risk.
HACCP - How is it controlled?
After the food has been examined for hazards, a controlled process must be ensured.
Production stages that are of particular importance for food safety are controlled at control points (CCPs = Critical Control Points). A process is safer the fewer control points it has.
The focus is on defending against dangers from microorganisms. Most pathogenic germs multiply in the temperature range from + 10 to + 65 ° C. It is therefore a matter of falling below this range by cooling or exceeding it by heating.
A sandwich is stored at + 7 ° C until it is handed over. Here germ growth is prevented by cooling. Manufacturing to customer requirements (just in time) is even safer (and advantageous in terms of product quality). Then only the ingredients that need to be cooled need to be cooled and not the roll itself.
Scrambled eggs are heated to around + 70 ° C until they are set and any salmonella that may be present has been killed.
There are other methods of preserving food as well. These include drying, smoking, salting and souring. However, they are usually not considered as control points because they change the food. The guest in a restaurant is z. B. not served with a piece of dried meat instead of a schnitzel.
Negative example 3:
Cold cuts are being prepared for sale in the butcher's section of a grocery store. One employee did not wash her hands after using the toilet.
Pathogenic germs can be transmitted (health hazard).
- Do not touch food (cold cuts) with your hands
- Careful cleaning and disinfection of hands after using the toilet
- Staff training for employees
Negative example 4:
The personal toilet is in an unsanitary condition.
The soap dispenser is defective; there is no disinfectant dispenser.
Effective hand cleaning of the staff after using the toilet is not possible. Disease-causing bacteria (e.g. Salmonella, Escherichia Coli) can be transferred to food and, under favorable conditions, multiply there considerably and lead to an acute health risk for the consumer.
- Daily cleaning and disinfection
- Have liquid soap, disinfectant and disposable towels ready every day
- Daily control and documentation
Define HACCP control points
Control points are provided at stations in the process in order to eliminate a hazard (e.g. heating minced meat to kill existing germs) or to reduce it to an acceptable level (e.g. cooling to slow down germ growth)
The germ growth is only slowed down by cooling. Germs are not killed by cooling.
Typical steering points are:
- Delivery or transport of food
- Cooling during interim storage
- Sufficient heating during preparation
- Quick delivery of the food after production
In the processes described here, temperature and time play a key role.
Implementation of the HACCP concept using examples
Menu in the restaurant
The dish of the day is to be offered in a restaurant with a leg of chicken with mixed vegetables and boiled potatoes.
(Food and process)
Boiled potatoes are foods that are rarely a cause for complaint. Vegetables (here peas and frozen roots) should not be viewed as particularly critical either.
However, the frozen chicken leg requires special attention when processing. When thawing, the thawing water containing salmonella could contaminate other food.
Common process errors:
- Transport of food in a vehicle without refrigeration
- Insufficient cooling until preparation
- Keeping food warm for a long time
- Processing of overlaid foods
HACCP - the process stages
1) Transport the packaged chicken drumsticks in a closed cool box at - 18 ° C
(Temperature measurement on delivery)
2) Store the chicken drumsticks in the freezer room / freezer at - 18 ° C to
Processing (temperature measurement daily)
3) Thaw the chicken drumsticks in a clean container
4) Cleaning and disinfecting the container after the thawing process
5) Cooking the chicken drumsticks (core temperature more than + 80 ° C) (temperature measurement)
6) Delivery of the menu for consumption at at least + 65 ° C
Bratwurst and French fries
Bratwurst and French fries are to be produced in a snack bar for immediate consumption.
(Food and process)
Bratwurst is a perishable food. Therefore it needs to be heated at maximum
+ 7 ° C. A core temperature of at least 80 ° C should be reached when heating.
French fries (frozen) must be stored at a temperature of at least - 18 ° C until they are heated. They should be heated in the deep fryer to a maximum of + 175 ° C. At higher temperatures, acrylamide (carcinogenic) could be formed.
The process stages
1) Transport from the supplier in closed cooling facilities (bratwurst max. + 7 ° C
(fresh sausage + 4 ° C), French fries at least - 18 ° C) (temperature measurement at
2) Intermediate storage in cooling facilities in the company (temperature measurement daily)
3) Frying the French fries at a maximum of + 175 ° C (temperature measurement when heating)
4) Heating the sausage to a core temperature of at least + 70 ° C (temperature measurement)
5) Delivery to the consumer at at least + 65 ° C
Pizza in a supermarket or a gas station
(Food and process)
An industrially produced and packaged frozen pizza carries only a low health risk.
When transporting to the supermarket / petrol station, it must be ensured that - 18 ° C is not exceeded. This also applies to interim storage in the company. The pizza is cooked in the oven at at least + 80 ° C (product temperature) according to the manufacturer's recommendation.
The process stages
1) Transport to the company: at least - 18 ° C
2) 2 Incoming inspection (temperature measurement on delivery at random)
3) Storage in freezer at at least - 18 ° C (temperature measurement daily)
4) Preparation according to the manufacturer's recommendation (note temperature measurement and time)
5) Delivery to the consumer at at least + 65 ° C
Open sandwiches and rolls
(Bakery, gas station, butcher shop)
(Food and process)
If sandwiches are offered with food that needs to be refrigerated, they must be stored at a maximum of + 7 ° C until they are sold.
They become unsightly after a short time. The cooling means that the topping dries out and the bread becomes sticky. Open sandwiches should therefore be offered for a maximum of one hour. It is even better to produce "just in time", that is, to prepare the bread when you order it.
The process stages
1) Transport of bread in clean containers, packaged cold cuts, cheese, lettuce at a maximum
+ 7 ° C (temperature measurement)
2) Incoming inspection (temperature measurement)
3) Storage of cheese, sausage, salad at a maximum of + 7 ° C (temperature measurement daily)
4) Preparation when ordering on a clean surface with clean cutlery
5) Delivery to the consumer
Example for process stage 5:
- A scrambled egg is done when the egg is firm (visual inspection)
- A meatball is cooked through when the inside is no longer red, but gray-brown
The cooking temperature does not have to be measured for every cooking process if work instructions specify how long and at what temperature certain foods are to be heated in order to reach at least + 70 ° C.
We create your own HACCP concept:
According to Article 5 of Regulation (EC) 852/2004 on food hygiene, food business operators are obliged to set up, carry out and maintain one or more procedures based on the HACCP principles. Furthermore, in the event of changes to the product, the manufacturing process or the production stages, the process must be checked and the process adapted as required.
With the creation and implementation of such a HACCP concept, however, small and medium-sized companies often feel overwhelmed.
If you need help: Ask us: 07254/779528
Book HACCP, hygiene advice and hygiene training on Hygiene-Plus.de
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